Dictionary of Terms

Table of Contents
© 2005 by Pete Antoniak
1 Jun 2005

Address of Record: Address which an Author, Researcher or Associate gives to EdUGames as his or her official address. All checks, if mailed, will be mailed to the address of record. The address of record may determine taxes and withholding if required.
Answer List: A Resource File. A Common set of possible answers that can be used by different Rounds. A set of answers and reference to an image for Game type F. The final list in Game Type H. Instead of repeating a possible list of answers in each question, a reference to an Answer List Resource can be used.
Assignment Description Page: A web page that describes an assignment in enough detail for a contractor to submit a bid price. The bottom of the page includes a form for submitting a bid.
Assignment List: Part of a Volunteer Agreement that list Research Assignments that the Volunteer agrees to complete. This is a special agreement between EdUGames and a Volunteer interested in learning a skill such as creating diagrams or learning how to use an Authoring Tool.
Assignment Listing Page: The web page containing Assignments (Research, RA, Tester). Maintained by the Contracts Administrator.
Associates (Research Associate-RA): Individuals who take on responsibilities for a fee as outlined in their respective CyberAssociate Descriptions. They may exist anywhere in the world and communicate via the Internet. The only requirement is that they must be able to communicate in English over the Internet and are capable of doing the research. They may be teachers, students, shut-ins, and can have full time or part time jobs. They can have any nationality which United States law allows EdUGames to do business with. Sometimes referred to as CyberAssociate or Research Associate
Author: The person or organization that creates or owns a Round or Resource.
Beta Tester: Individual or organization that tests Rounds or Sets.
California Model Curriculum Guide: A series of guide books from the California State Department of Education, PO Box 271. Sacramento, CA 95802-0271 (916) 445-1260.
Category Code Committee: Decides on new Category Code names as necessary.

Classifier: The person who is the final arbitrator of the Category Codes for a Round before it is inserted into the Master Data Base. 
Content: The Rounds (question material) and Resources (pictures, map, sound bytes etc.) that are used by the EdUGames program in the course of game play. Content is downloaded into EdUGames, similar to the way text files are loaded into a word processor or video game cartridges are loaded into a video game.
Content Provider: A general term for anyone involved in the process of Round and Resource creation. Content Providers are distinguished from Editors and Game Masters who work with content, but do not create it.
Content Provider Database (CPDB): A Database maintained by EdUGames that links the Royalty Owner Code (ROC) to the Content Provider. It contains information on the Content Provider, including the mailing address for royalty payments and what he/she wants the users to see about him/her. Note: For content that is created by Researchers or Associates, the ROC may be an EdUGames department or profit center code.
Common Text: A Resource File. Text that can be used by a Round that is not part of the Round. An example might be a Literary work or document that is referenced often.
CyberAuthor: see Author
CyberResearchers: See Researcher.
CyberAssociate: See Associate.
DataColumn: See DataTable.
Data Format Description: A precise description of how data will be formatted. This is an integral part of a Research Contract in that the results of the Research will be transmitted electronically and placed into Tables, Lists and Rounds.
Round: The lowest unit of content consisting of a single record of comma delimited fields. The first 14 or more fields are administrative, indicating such things as ownership, education code, category code etc. The remaining fields pertain to the question and usually start with a question or challenge. The administrative fields may be changed without requiring a new validation code. However, if a change is made to a question field, the Round must be revalidated. A Round is a single ASCII Text record in the Master Database (MDB). Depending on the type of game screen, it could be a single question, or multiple questions. Rounds Examples lists examples of Rounds.

Round Verifier: A software tool that looks at each Rounds and insures that if will not cause a problem with the EdUGames program. It checks each field to insure that the material is properly formatted, that the resources are in the Resource Library and, if everything is correct, it assigns a verification code. It also assigns a serial number and calculates the ROC field.
DataTable (DT): A spreadsheet based comma separated (CSV) table of information covering a specific subject. An example might be a table of the states which would include the state name, capital, largest city, nick name etc. The states name would appear in the first column and corresponding information in subsequent columns. Parts of DTs are used to create Rounds through the used of various programming tools. The size of a DT is measured by the number of rows and columns. A DataColumn would be a column of information. In the above example, it could be a list of state flowers. A DataRow would be a row of information. In the above example a DataRow might be the name of a state along with all the column items (Capital, Flower, Largest City etc.).
DataRow: See DataTable
Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: A book by Hirsch, Kett and Trefil , (Houghton Mifflin) that explains the items in the Cultural Literacy List. It is used extensively as an example of using a standard reference source. It's reference code is DCLn where n is a different substitution template type.
Edition: An Edition is usually one or more Question Files usually along with the supporting Resource Files, although some or all of the resources may be in a common or standard library. Each Edition will have a unique serial number and a section in the Index File that prorates Author by RWUs for royalty payment purposes.
Edition Editor: See Editor
Edition Index File: Each Edition will include an ASCII Text file that lists the references, resources, contributors, acknowledgments, etc. for the Edition.
Editor: The person who assembles Rounds into Question Files and Question Files into an Edition. The Editor insures that all the necessary resources are in the appropriate Resource Folders/Directories or are otherwise available to the target market. Just as in a book, an Edition usually covers a specific topic, grade level or area. See Game Master for an on line position similar to Editor.
EdUGames®: The educational computer game program that is sold under the title EdUGames. EdUGames is covered by US patent # 5,456,607 and copyrights registered with the Library of Congress. The program itself does not have any content incorporated within it. See Content.
EdUGames FTP Site: A location on the Internet that can be accessed by a file browser such as Fetch. The site consists of various subdirectory from which files can be downloaded and in some cases up loaded. Some of the subdirectory may require a pass word. 
Electronic Data: Any information recorded or transmitted electronically. For purposes of any EdUGames contract, the term electronic data and data are interchangeable.
Game Master: A person who creates Sets.  This can be a Teacher.  But it can also be a person who actively manages the interface to a network based game.  He or she might arranges for interactive online tournaments. A Game Master is paid royalties for the Sets that are played.  Also see Editor.
Game Room: An area [web page] in EdUGames that a user may go to and play specific Sets usually on a specific topic. Public Game Rooms usually are devoted to a specific subject and are run by Game Masters.  Private Game Rooms may require an access code.
Game Screen: EdUGames consists of over 20 different stand-alone games which are designated by the letters "A" through "Z". The document Summary of Games Screen Types lists a brief description or each game type.
Head of Resource Development: An Associate responsible for developing the Resources to support EdUGames.
EdUGames FTP Site: A location on the internet, controlled by EdUGames where files can be up loaded and downloaded.
Image Files: An image resource file type. Images can be pictures, diagrams, maps or drawings.
Initial Code (iCode): A 4 to 12 letter code usually composed of the initials of a person and a sequentially number. If John F. Kennedy were to apply for a code, his code might be JFK1. The iCode also applies to internal cost centers such as PD0002, which stands for Public Domain. This might apply to an image that was received from the National Archives.
Intern: A person who commits to a list of assignments without pay in return for the education and training value of it. EdUGames in return commits to provide training and a richly rewarding set of assignments and upon completion, an evaluation of the intern's performance if requested. This term has been superceded by the term Volunteer and applies to a situation where a Volunteer enters into a special agreement to learn a skill.
Intern Agreement: A negotiated agreement between EdUGames and an Intern whereby EdUGames agrees to provide training and guidance and Intern agrees to complete the assignments on an Assignment List. This term has been superceded by an individual Volunteer Agreement.
Internship: A negotiated agreement between an Intern and EdUGames to provide a set of assignments in return for the training and education. This term has been superceded by an individual Volunteer Agreement.
Item Delimiter: A single character, usually a comma, that separates items in data. Other separators are ";" , ":" and "|". The usual hierarchy of separation is ";" ":" "|". Example: ",Animals;Cats:Tabby:Puff;Dogs:Fido:Bowser;Birds:Twetty,Plants; Trees:Apple:Peach:Bannana;Grasses:Burmada:Crab:Dicondra, Bugs;Flying:Fly:Bee;Junping:Grasshopper:Flea,"
If is very important that the format for a game screen not violate the delimiter criteria.
Image Files: A general name for any file type that displays an image on the screen.
Line Art: A type of Computer image in which all lines are exact and continuous. Line art usually displays better on a computer screen than a scanned-in image.

List Files: Resources consisting of lists that can be used in standard questions such as Game Q in which the answers are the names of the states or the elements. This allows the author to standardize on lists of answers. It also saves text space in the Round.
Master Category Code Database: A database of a concise set of category codes that build on the first two letters of a category. Example A US President would have a code of PeLePoToUS which would stand for Person--Leader--Political--Top--United States. These codes are used in Rounds as sort keys.
Master Education Code Database : Similar to the Category Code Database, the Education Code provides a means to sort Rounds on the Education subject like English, Science, History, Math etc.
Master Database (MDB): The depository of all approved Rounds.
Master Resources Database (MRDB): Each Resource in the Master Resource Library is assigned a unique file name by type. The Master List of Resources will contain a list of all Resources, the ROC of the Resource Provider, the RWU and other pertinent information.
Master Resource Library (MRL): The folder or directory that contains all Resource available to Rounds.
Notice to Proceed: An email message from EdUGames to an Author or Contractor to start work on a Contract or Proposal.
Notification of Content Acceptance or Rejection: A formal message from EdUGames to an Author or Contractor either accepting or rejecting a submission.
Network Database (NDB): A copy of the MDB and MRL which can be accessed by a network based version of EdUGames.  This would apply to a Company or University placing the EdUGames system on their system.
Network Play: The play of EdUGames over a LAN, WAN or internet connection.
Network Resource Library: A subset of the Master Resource library maintained on a Network to support the Rounds in the Network Database
Midi Format Music Files: A notation method for indicating notes to be played by a computer.
Paint Files: See Pict files.
Pict Files : A common way of recording images in a computer by giving a value for each pixel.  Used to indicate images files such as .jpg and .gif.

Pixel Size: A Pixel is an addressable point on a screen. A platform independent indication of the size of an image. The minimum size of most monitors is 640 pixels across by 480 pixels down. The largest size image that can be played in EdUGames is 640 by 352 in order to allow for the area at the top of the screen. It is important that images conform to exact pixel sizes.
Q&A: A single question, reference and one or more answers. An example might be "Who is buried in Grant's tomb?,The 1993 NY Park Guide:Pg 27,General Grant,Mrs. Grant". Note that the question, reference, and answers are separated by commas and that the first character of each field in NOT a space ("one,two,three" NOT "one, two, three"). See Comma Errors and Space Errors VERY IMPORTANT: The following characters can not be used in a question, reference or answer ", ; : ". (See Item delimiters).
Project: A description of a coordinated effort to create Rounds, Resources and or Editions. A Project will usually center around the creation of a table or group of related resources. An example of a Project might be to create a number of Rounds on Classical Music, or a Table of Events in WW II which would include all related pictures, map, map coordinates etc.  A Project will have a Project Manager and Project Plan.
Project Manger (PM): A person designated to manage a project. A project may include the creation of a set of Rounds addressing a specific subject or area of interest. It may also include the creation of a group of Resources. The PM person may be included in the Royalty Code Field of a Round as part of the Editorial staff. The PM is responsible to insure that the material is factually correct, where as the Technical Manager is responsible to insure that the material is formatted correctly. The PM is responsible for classification coding of Rounds.
Project Plan: A written description of a project along with a schedule and budget.
QuickTime: A proprietary multimedia multi-track file format from Apple Computer that allows motion pictures to be displayed on a computer screen. Requires a driver or extension to be installed on the system before it can be played.
Reference Code: A substitution code to allow for an abbreviated reference field in a Round. An example might be "^DCL1 123052". The ^ indicates that what follows is a substitution code. The DCL1 is the unique reference source code for the Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, substitution type 1. The numbers following the space are substituted into a template line in the Edition Index specific to the reference code. An Example of a template line in an Edition Index might be:

^DCL1,The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy by Ed Hirsch; Joseph Kett and James Trefil;© 1988;Houghton Mifflin Company, Dictionary of Cultural Literacy; Pg. *** ¶ **#.

The actual template substitution is the third comma separated field. EdUGames; will substitute the numbers following the space into the template as follows: *s are replaced in sequence and #s are ignored. In the above case the substitution will produce:
"Dictionary of Cultural Literacy; Pg. 123 ¶ 05" for "^DCL1 123052"
Note that the final "2", which is an internal code, is ignored (The #). Extra text specific to the question may be placed after the substitution code and it will be placed into the substitution at the end. For example, I could do the following: "^DCL1 123052 This is not the same Jackson who was a General in the Civil War." Everything after the "2" will be carried forward in the substitution.
Resource: The Pictures, Sound Bytes, Film Clips Maps, Drawings etc. that support the questions. A Round will indicate the name of the Resource File to use, the program will first attempt to find the Resource File in the Edition Folder, if it can't find it there, it will check the last five places that it looked for resources. This allows resources to be placed onto a CD-ROM, while the Question Files are on a floppy or hard disk, LAN, WAN or online service.
Request for Bids (RFB): A Formal request by EdUGames to Researchers to bid on a Specification to provide electronic research data.
Request for Proposal (RFP): A formal request from EdUGames to an Author or Authors for a proposal to submit Rounds and/or Resources. An RFP will have a unique RFP number.
Researcher: Person or organizations that provides research for a fee. A Researcher may also be an organization or group such as a high school class. Researchers are distinguished from Authors in that Researchers are paid up front for all rights to the content as laid out in the Research Assignment. Authors are paid royalties as a function of usage.
Research Assignment: A written specification outlining in detail the research that is to be conducted and the format of the material to be returned to EdUGames. Research Assignments are posted on the EdUGames Research Assignment web page. Each Research Assignment has a unique identification number.
Research Associates (RA): Individuals who take on responsibilities for a fee as outlined in their respective Responsibility Descriptions. They may exist anywhere in the world and communicate via the Internet. The only requirement is that they must be able to communicate in English over the Internet and are capable of doing the research. They may be teachers, students, shut-ins, and can have full time or part time jobs. They can have any nationality which United States law allows EdUGames to do business with. Sometimes referred to as CyberAssociate or Associate
Research Specification: Descriptions of the format of the electronic data that a Researcher is to submit as part of a contract with EdUGames.
Research Tools: Software programs developed by EdUGames to format the results of research effort.
Resources: See Resource Files
Resource Files: The pictures, maps, drawings, sound bytes, video clips etc. that are referenced by the Rounds in creating the EdUGames experience. May also be referred to as Resources.
Resource Library: The collection of Resource Files, separated into folders or directories by type, necessary to support some Rounds. See Master Resource Library
Resource Provider: An Author or organization that contributes Resources to the Resource Library that may be used in Rounds. As an example, an artist might create a medical drawing of the Human Body and place it into the EdUGames Resource Library. An Author might later reference it in a Round. It is only when a resource is referenced in a Round and the Round is used in a situation that generates money that a Resource Provider will get royalty payments.
Royalty Owner Code: Each Author and Resource Provider will have a unique code consisting of initials and digits. As an example, the author of the EdUGames program, Peter Richard Antoniak might be PRA1, ABC News might be ABC1 etc. This code will be used to identify contributors of the Round. In a Round, there will be a lower case letter preceding each ROC to indicate the type of contribution of the Royalty Owner to the Round. For example, an "a" indicates, author, a "p" indicates picture, a "v" video, etc.  An example of what might be found in a Round: aPRA1_80 dERT34_15
Resource Library: A set of Folders (MAC) and Directories (DOS) that contain Resource Files. See Master Resource Library.
Round: The minimum unit of playable material. For Games such as A:Arrows or D:Dates, it is a single question. For Games such as M:Match is will be numerous matches. For GameQ  it will be numerous questions. Each Round will have a unique serial number consisting of a Capital letter to indicate the Game type, two letters to indicate the language and a unique number. If a Round is identical in two language, the serial number would be the same with the exception of the second two letters. Example The English version may be Len001234 and the French version Lfr001234.
Royalty Assignment Field (RAF): A field in a Round that indicates the ownership and weighting of the Round and referenced Resources.
Royalty Weighting Unit (RWU): A unit of measure of the size or complexity of a Round or Resource. Each Game Screen Type has its own formula for RWUs. Formulas for each Game Screen Type can be found in the document EdUGames Royalty Formulas

Sample Files: Files maintained at the EdUGames FTP site that help to clarify the standard formats for electronic data.
Separator Error(,;:|): A data creation error in which a item delimiter, usually a comma, is placed inside a field item. This usually happens in questions where good English would call for a comma. The solution is to rephrase the question or to substitute a dash, for the comma. It may not be the best English, but it works. The reason is that commas are used by the computer to separate the parts of a question. If a comma were used in the question, the second part of the question would end up in the reference field, and each other field in the Round would be moved over accordingly.
Set: A list of Rounds, Set and Web Page Links.  Players play Sets.  A Set creator is called a Game Master and usually creates a Set to address a specific subject.  A Teacher may create a different Set for each school week, month quarter or course. A Game Master may create Sets and posts them to his/her Game Room for competitive play. Sets are created using the Set Maker Tool.
Set Maker Tool: A Java tool accessible through a browser by Game Masters and Teachers to select material to be played. The tool allows a user to select subject areas and key words and have a list of all applicable material presented in a way that it can be compiled into a list. The resultant list can be modified and posted back to the EdUGames web server as a Set.
Space Error: An data input error in which a space is placed after a field separator comma. Example: Wrong = "Peter, Paul, Mary" , Right = "Peter,Paul,Mary".
Specification: A detailed description of the research to be undertaken and the format of the electronic data that is to be transmitted as a product of that research. A description of the services to be provided by a CyberAssociate. A description of the content material to be created by an Author.
Standard Resource CD-ROM: A means of distributing a standard set of pictures, maps, sound bytes etc., independent of the Rounds. This allows a player to play a game over a low bandwidth network device where the Rounds come down the connection and the referenced Resources are supplied from the CD-ROM. It also allows for the coupling of a single floppy disk with the Rounds and some Resources on it with a CD-ROM with many Megs of Resources on it. This concept has never been implemented and with most user's band width increasing, probably never will.
Sound Bytes: See Sound Files
Sound Files: Digital Sound files or Resources that can be played by EdUGames.
Substitution File: A Resource. Similar to an Answer List, a common string of text that is used by many different Rounds and can be referenced by a Round. Same as Text File. This type of file is often used in GameQ as the template of answers.

Task Description: A description of the electronic data to be provided by a Researcher or Associate and a suggested means to obtain it. It can be as simple as "Complete Table ThScAs__.CSV", or a detailed description of how to create a list of map coordinates using the Location Tool.

Technical Manager (TM): A person who helps an Author in the formatting of the material in a Round.  A person who helps a Resource Provider in the creation of a Resource.  A TM may be included in the Royalty Code Field of a Round. The TM is responsible for processing the Round material through the Round Verifier and working with the Author to resolve problems.
Text Files: Resources consisting of text that may be used as substitution text in a Round.
Video Files: Moving Picture files that can be played by EdUGames. The present standard is QuickTime, but in time this may include MPEG.